The MBA Standard Program is the flagship offering of the AGSB, designed for young adult practitioners who wish to upgrade their managerial skills for eventual promotion to higher-level management. The program provides theoretical frameworks and case examples that build on the relatively limited managerial experience of the students enrolled in the program. This is also the program that the AGSB offers to all students enrolled at the Ateneo School of Medicine and Public Health (ASMPH). All graduates of the ASMPH will earn double degrees, an MD and an MBA, in a unique collaboration that aims to produce physician-leaders for the health sector: doctors who are outstanding clinicians, dynamic leaders, and social catalysts.
The MBA Standard Program Curriculum
- The MBA Standard Program is offered on a trimestral basis and the courses that are offered follow a logical sequence. Any change needs the approval of the cluster chair and the Dean.
- The MBA Standard Program consists of the following courses:
Pre-MBA Courses 10 units Core Courses 30 units Integrating Courses 6 units Electives 6 units Total 52 units
- The regular load per trimester is three (3) subjects. A student may be allowed to take up to a maximum of five (5) subjects per trimester, subject to the approval of the Registrar.
- The program allows exemption in the Pre-MBA Courses (with the exception of Research for Management) by passing the validating examinations before the start of the trimester. Validating examinations are administered by the Office of the Registrar.
COURSE CODE UNITS
|1. Pre-MBA Courses|
|Methods of Research||SPMETRES||2|
2. Core Courses
|Applied Management Science||SPMANSCI||3|
|Principles & Dynamics of Management||SPPRIMAN||3|
|Human Resource Management||SPHUMRES||3|
|Managing Concepts for Information Technology||SPINFOTE||3|
|Economics for Managers||SPECOMAN||3|
|Business and Professional Discourse||SPBPDISC||3|
|Financial Analysis for Decision-Making||SPFINDEM||3|
|Information Security Management||SPINFOSEC||3|
|Investment Analysis and Portfolio Management||SPINVEMA||3|
|Law and Business Environment||SPLAWBUS||3|
|Lean Six Sigma||SP6SIGMA||3|
|Management of Financial Institutions||SPMAFINS||3|
|Supply Chain Management||SPSUPMAN||3|
4. Integrating Course
- Pre-MBA Courses
- Business Communication (SPBUSCOM)
The course studies the concepts, principles, strategies, and procedures for expressing ideas, positions, and values cogently and convincingly through forms of oral, written, and electronic means of communication. It deals with the application of principles and the use of strategies in listening, reading, speaking, and writing underlined with critical thinking in the processes involved in corporate life, operations, and management. It situates business communication in a global context and underscores advancement in technology.
- Applied Mathematics (SPAPMATH)
The course is designed for the students and business practitioner who needs to learn about the possible uses of modern mathematics to understand recent developments in several fields of business. It will prepare students for courses in production, statistics, managerial economics, management accounting, and management science. The course has value in and of itself for the student who aspires for a managerial career in a world where science, technology and formal decision-making techniques are important.
- Managerial Statistics (SPMASTAT)
The course is designed for students who have little or no background in statistics. Its purpose is to make students competent in the use of tools and techniques in decision-making under uncertainty, as well as in conducting research studies, which includes concepts of probabilities, descriptive statistics, and inferential statistics. The approach is conceptual and problem-oriented using Excel to perform statistical computations.
- Financial Accounting (SPFINACC)
The course is a prerequisite subject that introduces the learner to accounting as both the “language of business” and the tool for making effective the finance function. It focuses on the fundamental financial reports, and the principles, concepts, and conventions underlying the preparation of such reports, specifically those related to the Philippine Accounting Standards and the International Accounting Standards. Emphasis is given on understanding the implications of the financial statements and the line items presented in each statement, and how they relate to the decision-making processes of users. The construction and presentation of relevant and reliable accounting data are considered necessary in securing good decisions that will benefit firms and the nation in terms of proper allocation of economic resources.
In venturing through this course, attention will be given to both the processes of providing accounting information, the decisions derived from using the said information, and the ethical/social implications arising from such decisions, specially the impact of quality information to the firm and to the economy as a whole.
- Methods of Research (SPMETRES)
The course offers students basic knowledge and skills to undertake, present, and evaluate research concerning management problems of for-profit and not-for-profit organizations. The course is designed to enable students to apply what they learn about business research in their other MBA courses and in their own workplace.
A general framework of research integrates Lonergan’s basic principles of the dynamic structure of human knowing with business research process, functions of theory in research, and ethics in business research. This general framework creates a learning environment that promotes critical thinking and analytical skills of students studying business research.
The course gives students opportunities to learn and apply different types of research designs used in business research. The course guides the students on how to select and use the appropriate methods of collecting and analyzing data and information to meet research objectives. Research topics include customers, suppliers, employees, operations, financial issues, and other management problems of business units or organizations.
- Business Communication (SPBUSCOM)
- Core Courses
- Business Ethics (SPETHICS)
Many business schools in the world today require Business Ethics courses in order to develop business students’ sense of moral and social responsibilities. There is a growing recognition that managers have a tremendous power to shape not only business organizations but the surrounding community as well. Recognizing this, the public is increasingly demanding that managers use this power responsibly and that business be accountable not only to its stockholders and internal stakeholders but to society at large.
It has been said that business is good for society since it creates wealth, products and services benefiting human beings. But white-collar crimes, wrongdoings and excesses committed by both individuals and business organizations, often overshadow these goals.
The course will discuss the foundation of ethics in general and of business ethics in particular. It will attempt to help students critically examine moral values and principles.
The course will help students understand how moral character is developed. It aims to improve their ethical decision-making by presenting a model for ethical reasoning to analyze dilemmas involving employee relations, employee-organization relations, and corporate-employee, corporation-community relations.
Through this course, students will be taught that business should not be purely driven by profit, but that it should contribute to the well-being of employees and the community in which it operates.
- Leadership Effectiveness (SPLEADER)
The course introduces the students to a depth of thinking about individuals and collective patterns of leadership practices. The course will guide students to reflectively process or understand leadership patterns and dynamics as applied in their personal and professional lives. Critical thinking and ethics-based reasoning and decision-making are emphasized.
- Applied Management Science (SPMANSCI)
This course is designed for graduate students that provide formal training on the use of quantitative tools or techniques in analyzing and/or solving management problems encountered in finance, marketing, production/operations, human resources, and other functional areas. The approach is conceptual and problem-oriented using EXCEL to derive solutions to mathematical models. The students are expected to formulate decision problems mathematically, derive computer solutions, interpret solutions/results, perform sensitivity analysis (analyze impact of various “what if” scenarios on model solutions) and most importantly, be able to draw managerial insights from quantitative solutions.
- Operations Management (SPOPEMAN)
The course is designed to provide students with an understanding of the concepts, techniques, and applications of contemporary production and operations management (OM). It is a practical course that covers strategic, tactical, and operational issues involved in both manufacturing and service operations. In addition to traditional OM topics, the course also includes quality management, supply chain management, and e-Commerce.
While providing students with technical and quantitative tools, it will focus more on the managerial aspect of operations, as well as on the ethical and social implications of OM decisions.
- Managerial Accounting (SPMANACC)
Managers need information in their planning and control functions. Financial information is provided not only to report the firm’s financial position and operating results, but to guide managers in optimizing the resources entrusted to the firm by its many stakeholders.
The course introduces a business-management approach to the development and use of accounting information particularly for internal reporting and decision-making. Topics include the analysis of financial reports, cost concepts and cost accumulation methods, CVP analysis, standard costing, operational and capital budgeting, segment reporting, relevant costing, and cost management and pricing strategies. In discussing the various topics, emphasis will be given on how cost and profit information can guide managers in making operational and strategic decisions. Ethics, corporate governance, enterprise risk management, and corporate social responsibility will also be discussed in relation to accounting practices by firms.
- Financial Management (SPFINMAN)
The course deals with the application of contemporary finance theory to the solution of management problems. The focus is on policy formulation and decision-making under uncertainty. Critical evaluation of concepts is emphasized to assess their usefulness in practical business situations. Problem-solving methodology is used to illustrate the theories and tools in financial decision-making.
The course likewise tackles the ethical issues and dilemmas faced by the finance manager in his day-to-day work and how these are solved. The learners will be taught how to resolve these issues using an ethical decision analysis framework. The course also discusses the implications of financial management decisions in the life of the enterprise and how such impacts the national economy as a whole.
- Principles & Dynamics of Management (SPPRIMAN)
The course provides an introduction to management and the knowledge and skills to competently cope with the challenges facing today’s management. Business enterprises and nonprofit organizations operate within a complex and rapidly changing global environment. The field of management is undergoing a revolution. Globalization, economic deregulation, trade liberalization, technological advancement, and the widening growth of the urban poor have created new opportunities and threats confronting managers. The course is designed to familiarize learners with the accepted management standards, procedures and techniques employed by corporate, business, and functional level managers.
- Human Resource Management (SPHUMRES)
The course emphasizes the alignment of Human Resource Management practices and programs with the goals, strategies, and values of the organization. This course presents powerful tools for analyzing strategic alignment that will enable the learner to understand the most vital resource of the organization – its human resource.
It provides a fresh perspective on the role of HR and its function as change agent in partnership with top management and how together, they can build one of the most critical sources of sustainable competitive advantage – an organization whose design, culture, and people are aligned with strategy and values.
It addresses human resource topics such as reward systems, performance management, high-performance human resource systems, training and development, recruitment, retention, work-force relationships from a strategic standpoint.
- Management Concepts for Information Technology (SPINFOTE)
Information systems and technologies are vital components of successful businesses and organizations. They constitute an essential field of study in business administration and management.
The course presents management concepts that lead to an understanding of information technology and its role within the enterprise. It includes enhancing awareness of the digital and economic divide within a nation and how a business performs its economic activities while at the same time investing in marginalized sectors and communities.
Building consensus among business and technology professionals using modern approaches to strategic planning, business process re-engineering and systems development are discussed highlighting the ethical and legal principles that impact this environment.
The goal is to help students learn how to use and manage information technologies to revitalize business processes, improve decision-making and gain competitive advantage. Major emphasis is placed on up-to-date coverage of the essential role of the IT in providing a platform for business, commerce and collaboration processes among all business stakeholders in today’s networked enterprises and global markets.
- Marketing Management (SPMARKMA)
The course is designed to provide learners with knowledge on the fundamental concepts and practices of Marketing in the context of the new economy. It will focus on the formulation and implementation of marketing strategies in the areas of brand equity, products and services, pricing, distribution, advertising and promotion, and competition. These strategies will be discussed considering the current business environment including realities such as hyper competition, digitalized technologies, and the empowered consumer. The course will also help learners gain a good understanding of administrative processes where marketing plays a central role in the game of demand creation, customer satisfaction, and customer relation management. Furthermore, it will also show how ethical and socially responsible marketing practices can help in nation building.
- Economics for Managers (SPECOMAN)
The course focuses on the basic economic concepts and principles as applied to business situations. Microeconomic concepts such as scarcity, opportunity costs, marginalism, and efficiency will never lose their central role in economics as long as scarcity itself exists. Macroeconomic concepts like GDP and GNP, employment and unemployment, inflation and deflation, balance of payments and foreign exchange rates will remain to be the primary concerns of all economies. These micro and macro concepts are integrated into a framework that will assist business leaders and managers in coping with the challenges arising from changes in a competitive business environment.
The course will provide students with a working knowledge and skills of how consumers, firms and industries behave in a complex macroeconomic environment, thus helping them arrive at rational, optimal, and efficient choices. These informed choices when added up to the choices that other people make, translate into better societal choices.
- Business Ethics (SPETHICS)
- Brand Management (SPBRANMA)
The course will enable students to analyze and evaluate brands and identify strategies to manage them effectively. It will present principles of branding and brand management that will be useful in appraising the range of theories and frameworks that help create a strong, differentiated brand. It will equip students with skills that will make them leverage branding to sustain competitive advantage, increase customer loyalty, and increase profitability.
- Business Intelligence (SPBUSINTEL)
As companies migrate toward responsive e-business models, they are investing in new data-driven decision support application frameworks that help them respond rapidly to changing market conditions and customer needs.
To succeed in business today, companies need information systems that can support the diverse information and decision-making needs of their managers and business professionals. This course explores in detail how this is accomplished by several types of management information, decision support, and other information systems. Attention is given to how the internet, intranets, and other Web-enabled information technology have significantly strengthened the role that information systems play in supporting the decision-making activities of every manager and knowledge worker in business.
The course begins with the foundation concepts of business intelligence and then delves into data mining – applying quantitative analysis to large-scale data made available through recently developed information technology. This serves to expand the student’s knowledge on the latest and emerging quantitative analysis in business as a means to knowledge discovery. This knowledge discovery in turn results in aiding the business manager in making optimized decisions that translate into greater productivity, savings, profitability, and ultimately nation-building.
- Business and Professional Discourse (SPBPDISC)
The course equips students with effective listening and oral communication skills in English to enable them to intelligently carry on a discourse with clarity and confidence with one, two, small or large groups, in a formal and in an informal context. Through the understanding of concepts, principles, and implementation of guidelines, as well as various exercises and activities, the participants will learn to interact, choose appropriate oral communication strategies, and carry on discourse on various topics in different situations. The focus will be on further development and mastery of discourse and communication styles within the context of various business encounters.
The course deals with the understanding of concepts and principles to efficiently and effectively apply them with the use of appropriate strategies in listening and speaking underlined with broadening of vocabulary and use of critical thinking in oral transactions, interactions and presentation of points/papers/positions. It situates oral business discourse in the global culturally diverse context of work.
- Controllership (SPCONTRO)
The course is an elective course for those who wish to deepen and widen their knowledge, understanding, application, and analysis of the role of controllership in organizations. It integrates the concepts, principles and tools of controls gained by the student from the foundation and core courses involving planning, controlling and providing reliable information for corporate decision-making.
As this is an elective course that utilizes knowledge and understanding gained from previous courses, the student is brought to the level of integration and synthesis by performing an actual management control analysis paper of a chosen company and submitting this paper as a major requirement of the course.
The course largely makes use of the dynamics of management control to achieve corporate objectives.
The student should have already taken up Accounting and Finance courses and the other core functional disciplines to be able to understand and integrate the role of controllership in the organization.
- Economic Development (SPECODEV)
The course deals with the economics of long-term growth and development. It focuses on areas and issues of policy-making that are likely to remain of primary concern in the efforts of underdeveloped and developing countries to achieve economic growth and development.
- Electronic Commerce (SPE-COMME)
The course is designed to guide managers through the process of overcoming the fear of change and embracing the benefits of e-commerce for customers, employees, and shareholders. The economic evidence of the growth of e-commerce and its benefits for streamlining the business relationships between a company and its customers, suppliers, and employees are examined. The highest pay-off e-commerce applications and principles of using e-commerce to create competitive advantage are identified.
How companies are getting CEOs on board, how they are managing their change process to create effective e-commerce strategies, and how they create cultures that can sustain the benefits of change in the future are discussed.
The role of senior management in translating the vision of e-strategy into a concrete reality is explored. This course also discusses how managers should participate in the design of e-commerce architectures; handle the most effective techniques for evaluating e-commerce suppliers and negotiating contracts; and manage e-commerce projects to enjoy the benefits of e-commerce.
- E-Marketing (SPE-MARK)
The course will introduce students to marketing applications of electronic information technology and communication technologies and to the impact of these technologies in the marketplace. Students will examine how these technologies offer opportunities for changing many aspects of the marketing function: people, product, price, place, and promotion. At the same time, the course will examine forces that are countering the E- marketing revolution.
Developments in electronic information and communication technology promise not only to open new opportunities for marketers to create value but also to change the way marketing are traditionally done. This course allows students to explore these new opportunities and to think about the marketing functions in light of these developments. The specialized nature of these technologies and the rapid pace of change both work to keep the study of these issues at the margins of existing marketing courses. Yet, the marketing impact of these changes will increase over time.
The course also includes introductory exercises on Internet-based applications to achieve initial hands-on experience in the emerging field of E-commerce. The focus of the course is not on mastering the technologies themselves, rather, the emphasis is on understanding the application of these tools to marketing problems.
- Entrepreneurship (SPENTREP)
Entrepreneurship is the ability to see opportunities where others see only problems, to turn those opportunities into an actual business venture, and to manage that venture into growing, viable enterprise. Entrepreneurship is for those who see an alternative to employment and are not daunted by the challenges of setting up their own business.
This course will strive primarily to inspire and to encourage entrepreneurship, through the examination, discussion, and analysis of contemporary entrepreneurs. Furthermore, to ensure the viability of any entrepreneurial venture, this course will provide a framework of evaluation techniques to apply and pertinent issues to consider when investigating business opportunities.
The focus of this course is on relatively small businesses, from inception to start-up to early establishment.
- Financial Analysis for Decision-making (SPFINDEM)
The course deals with the understanding and analysis of financial information for decision-making. The importance of financial information has never been emphasized until the issues of transparency, good corporate governance, and investor relations cropped up as corporate scandals. Because of the uncertainty brought about by the chaotic environment, there is need for more accurate financial information on a timely basis so that corporate financial management decisions and investor decisions will be guided.
Critical analysis, diagnosis, and evaluation of financial information are emphasized in this course as applied in practical business situations. Problem-solving methodology is used to illustrate the theories and tools in financial decision-making including the use of technologies to help with the analysis.
Because of the impact of transparency in corporate and investor relations, this course will tackle the ethical issues and dilemmas involving financial information and reporting.
- Financial Engineering (SPFINENG)
Financial Engineering is a course on the basic concepts and the application of the principles of financial innovation – the process that seeks to adapt existing financial instruments and processes and to develop new ones so as to enable financial market participants to cope more effectively with the changing world.
- Global Marketing (SPGLOBMA)
The course presents the challenges of marketing goods and services in foreign markets. The cultural, political, geographic, technological, and economic influences on international marketing will be discussed. This course also covers international market research and the application of the four P’s in an international setting. Students are expected to use this knowledge in analyzing international marketing management problems, using techniques and strategies necessary to incorporate and apply the “market concept” into the framework of the global marketplace.
- Information Security Management (SPINFOSEC)
As global networks expand through interconnection of the world’s information systems, the smooth operation of communication and computing solutions becomes vital. However, recurring events such as virus and worm attacks and the success of criminal attackers illustrate the weaknesses in current information technologies and the need to provide heightened security for these systems.
The course is designed to provide managers with a broad view of the entire field of information security, the background of many related elements, and enough detail to facilitate the understanding of the topic as a whole. The terminology of the field, the history of the discipline and an overview of how to manage an information security program are discussed. Case studies and business examples complement conceptual coverage to provide a real-world context.
- Investment Management (SPINVEMA)
The course deals with the application of the principles of investment analysis and portfolio management to corporate and personal finances. The steps and procedures involved in the investment process are discussed and simulated by the students to provide them with skills at creating their own corporate or personal investment portfolios in the future. Risk and return management strategies are discussed and analyzed as they apply not only to the global investment setting but also to the specific investment situations in the Philippine market.
The ethical dimensions of investment decisions will also be tackled as part of this course.
- Law in Business Environment (SPLAWBUS)
The course introduces the learner to the various laws that are relevant in the business environment. A wide range of law subjects from Contracts, Credit Transactions and Corporate Governance will be studied. The course is intended to equip the student with an understanding of how business decisions and operations are directly influenced by law.
In the first half of the course, the student will study the law on Contracts, Credit Transactions, Labor-Management Relations as well as Partnerships and Corporations for the purpose of attaining a working familiarity with basic legal concepts and principles.
For the rest of the course, the emphasis will be on Good Corporate Governance. The student will study the recent issuance of the SEC regarding corporate governance and how it impacts on the way corporations are run.
- Lean Six Sigma (SP6SIGMA)
The course covers the concepts of Lean and Six Sigma for both manufacturing and service businesses. Lean Six Sigma is a business and data-driven, process-oriented, benefit-driven, disciplined-based approach to reducing waste and minimizing defects in any type of process. Lean Six Sigma focuses on the reduction of waste, on increasing profitability, breakthrough improvement, and customer satisfaction.
Students are provided an overview of Lean, Six Sigma and the DMAIC problem-solving methodologies. Included are both statistical and non-statistical techniques used for continuous process improvement such as process definition, SIPOC, process flow diagrams, data collection techniques, measurement techniques, causes of process variation, pareto diagrams, histograms, cause and effect diagrams, DOE (Design Of Experiments), ANOVA Gage R&R, FMEA control charts, and process capability analysis, collectively called QC Tools.
- Management of Financial Institutions (SPMAFINS)
The course provides an analytical study of how financial institutions are managed from the perspective of the Chief Executive Officer. The approach is financial statement-based where the funds sourcing and utilization functions are clearly delineated, although the use of off-balance sheet intermediation tools to hedge risks is also emphasized. The focus of the course is “universal banking.”
The course will also tackle the ethical dimension of pitting a financial institution’s fiduciary and moral responsibilities to the depositors as an institution of trust, as well as its social and civic responsibilities to the government and the public at large, against its profit objective and the achievement of the basic financial management tenet of “shareholder wealth maximization.”
- Marketing Communication (SPMARCOM)
The course will introduce students to the concept of Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) which is the approach that more and more marketing and communications professionals are using to face the rapid growth of internet, the biggest challenges in the contemporary market place. An increased rate of advertising clutter in most traditional media, a more product knowledgeable and demanding consumer, higher pressures from manufacturers to retail chains and a global economy are only a few characteristics of today’s ever-evolving business environment.
The course will provide a review of the basic concepts of marketing, communications, segment marketing, positioning, and target market or to apply the most common consumer behavior techniques. It will also provide an opportunity for students to understand the target market(s) and, design an IMC campaign.
- Personal Finance (SPPERFIN)
The course will provide students with skills to make sound financial decisions. Personal financial planning will be discussed including the process of defining realistic goals, implementing financial activities toward the achievement of the goals, setting up of reasonable controls on financial decisions. Various topics will be discussed including sources of personal income, saving and consumer spending patterns, techniques for planning and budgeting consumption expenditures and savings. Special emphasis will also be given on the use of saving allocations to achieve personal goals; real property, insurance, financial investment, retirement, estate and tax planning. Likewise, ethical issues and dilemmas faced by a financial planner in his strategic and operational work will be tackled.
- Project Management (SPPROJMA)
The course takes the view of the project manager as a leader who manages projects effectively using appropriate tools and concepts in project management. It provides a framework for managerial and leadership effectiveness leading to the acquisition of professional skills to handle complex problems frequently encountered in project management. It involves the study and understanding of the core processes for initiating, planning, executing, controlling and closing projects under various circumstances. The course also includes the human side of project leadership and its strategic perspectives as applied in various types of organizations. The conceptual framework, the methodologies and the issues that will be highlighted in this course can be applied to a number of business decisions and change management situations. Both the theoretical and practical aspects of such applications will be covered.
The project environment is a team environment and a significant component of this course is team-based. With the guided learning offered in this course, the students are expected to be able to tackle projects in a controlled and coordinated manner and be aware of how to align their projects to achieve maximum benefits during execution.
- Supply Chain Management (SPSUPMAN)
The course covers concepts, trends, processes and techniques involved in the management of activities from the procurement of materials and services, to their transformation into intermediate goods or final products, and ultimately to their distribution and delivery to customers. The course will discuss procurement, inbound logistics, supply chain strategies, electronic procurement and warehousing and distribution. It will deal with managerial processes that span across functional areas within individual firms and links suppliers, trading partners, distributors, and customers across organizational boundaries. The course will also consider logistics, technology, network design, and administration of supply chains from the standpoint of business strategy and global competition.
- Brand Management (SPBRANMA)
- Integrating Courses
- Strategic Management (SPSTRAMA)
The course serves as the capstone course for the MBA program. It aims to enable the learners develop and implement strategic cross-functional decisions towards the attainment of their organizations’ vision, mission and objectives using strategic management principles and integrating knowledge and skills acquired by the learners from the other MBA courses.
The learners will apply the strategic management process consisting of strategy formulation, strategy implementation and strategy evaluation, as well as the various analytical frameworks and strategy formulation tools that can aid them in strategic decision making. Through this course, the learners’ strategic thinking capability is expected to be strengthened as they are made to critically analyze and integrate information about their companies’ external and internal environment in the local and global context, and to use this in formulating and implementing innovative strategies that can help their companies build a sustainable competitive advantage. The learners will likewise be made to understand the different strategy choices and to evaluate strategic management issues and concepts that are important to managing in today’s global environment. This course also aims to promote among its learners ethical business decisions, the practice of corporate social responsibility and making a contribution towards nation building.
- Strategic Management (SPSTRAMA)
Registrar: Joaquin Julian B. Agtarap, MBA
- Judy Araneta (8997691 loc. 2214)
- Danny Cruz (8997691 loc. 2215)
- Patrick Ignacio (8997691 loc. 2233)
- Ral Lacsamana (8997691 loc. 2234)
- Baby Tranquilino (8997691 loc. 2216)